EEG Entropy in REM Sleep as a Physiologic Biomarker in Early Clinical Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease

TitleEEG Entropy in REM Sleep as a Physiologic Biomarker in Early Clinical Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsAzami, H, Moguilner, S, Penagos, H, Sarkis, RA, Arnold, SE, Gomperts, SN, Lam, AD
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Pagination1557 - 1572
Date Published02/2023

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with EEG changes across the sleep-wake cycle. As the brain is a non-linear system, non-linear EEG features across behavioral states may provide an informative physiologic biomarker of AD. Multiscale fluctuation dispersion entropy (MFDE) provides a sensitive non-linear measure of EEG information content across a range of biologically relevant time-scales.

Objective: To evaluate MFDE in awake and sleep EEGs as a potential biomarker for AD.

Methods: We analyzed overnight scalp EEGs from 35 cognitively normal healthy controls, 23 participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 19 participants with mild dementia due to AD. We examined measures of entropy in wake and sleep states, including a slow-to-fast-activity ratio of entropy (SFAR-entropy). We compared SFAR-entropy to linear EEG measures including a slow-to-fast-activity ratio of power spectral density (SFAR-PSD) and relative alpha power, as well as to cognitive function.

Results: SFAR-entropy differentiated dementia from MCI and controls. This effect was greatest in REM sleep, a state associated with high cholinergic activity. Differentiation was evident in the whole brain EEG and was most prominent in temporal and occipital regions. Five minutes of REM sleep was sufficient to distinguish dementia from MCI and controls. Higher SFAR-entropy during REM sleep was associated with worse performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Classifiers based on REM sleep SFAR-entropy distinguished dementia from MCI and controls with high accuracy, and outperformed classifiers based on SFAR-PSD and relative alpha power.

Conclusion: SFAR-entropy measured in REM sleep robustly discriminates dementia in AD from MCI and healthy controls.

Short TitleJAD

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